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Congress intended that employees vindicate the rights given them under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by private action. For several years private actions proved to be very successful in eliminating employment discrimination. Recent decisions of the Supreme Court and lower courts have limited the effectiveness of the private employment discrimination suit as a major deterrent and remedy for such discrimination. This is especially true in the area of class action suits, which have been the single most effective tool in eliminating employment discrimination. Many courts today interpret Rule 23, the federal rule governing class action suits, so restrictively that such suits are becoming unworkable.