Mississippi College Law Review

Publication Date

Summer 2023


On June 23, 1972, Congress enacted the Title IX Education Amendment of 1972. Title IX prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities operated by recipients of federal financial assistance. Title IX’s core is the concept that students may not be denied educational opportunities based on their sex. Title IX’s protections extend to school activities, including admissions, financial aid, student services, counseling services, athletics, and physical education. The Title IX legislation eliminates sex-based discrimination to ensure all students—both male and female––have access to and equality in education.

The enactment of Title IX led to an upward trajectory for women pursuing higher education and sports. A 2011 report by the White House Council of Women and Girls found that forty years after the enactment of the Title IX Amendment, approximately 87% of women had at least a high school education.1 Approximately 28% had at least a college degree.2 This is a substantial increase from the 59% of women with high school education and 8% of women with a college degree in 1970.3 A more recent study conducted in 2021 states that around 91.6% of women have graduated high school, and 39.1% of women have completed a college degree.4 Over the past fifty years, there has been a substantial increase in women admitted to institutions of higher learning. In fact, more women in today’s world are earning college degrees than men.


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